Bambara groundnut is a valuable leguminous crop with many landraces. A study was carried out to establish genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationship, among 33 Bambara groundnut accessions based on simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. The nine microsatellite markers amplified a total of 27 alleles with a mean of 6.00 alleles per locus. Marker P 36 had the highest number of polymorphic bands while makers P131 and P68 were monomorphic. Genetic distance among the accessions based on Jaccard’s similarity coefficient ranged from 0.84 to 1.00. Cluster analysis resolved the accessions into five major groups with subgroups. Each group had a combination of distinct accessions from different geographical origin. A substantial level of intra-accession polymorphism was obtained among the evaluated collection of Bambara groundnut. The significant genetic diversity observed can support the selection of appropriate parental genotypes for the improvement of Bambara groundnut through various breeding programmes.