Quality Evaluation of Apis laboriosa and Apis mellifera Honey Collected from Bagmati Province, Nepal


  • Abhishek Bajgain
  • Bashu Dev Neupane
  • Diwakar Sarraf
  • Jwalant Karmacharya
  • Saksham Ranjitkar
  • Rajan Shrestha
  • Rajendra Gyawali Orcid


Honey is a natural sweet substance produced by Apis sp. from floral nectar or other plant parts which are gathered, modified and stored in the honeycombs by honeybees. The current research was aimed to analyze the quality parameters of locally available honey. Honey samples of Apis laboriosa and Apis mellifera were collected during spring of 2019 & 2021 and autumn 2021 from the Bagmati province, Nepal. Samples were analyzed their physicochemical and phytochemical properties. The result shows that, the pH was ranged between [4.467 0.0306 - 5.05 0.02], rheological studies showed Newtonian flow and pseudo-plastic type of Non-Newtonian flow, specific optical rotation was ranged between [(+) 5.75 0.4684 - (-) 12.71 0.234], specific gravity was ranged between [1.35 0.00017 - 1.409 0.00022], moisture content was ranged between [19.2% - 25%]. Secondary Metabolite screening showed the honey samples possesses flavonoids, saponins, glycosides, tannins, amino acids, protein and reducing sugar. Total phenolic content was ranged between [1.0427 - 6.86288] gm GAE/Kg honey while total flavonoid content ranged between [0.016755 - 0.353132] gm QE/Kg Honey. IC50 obtained from DPPH assay ranged between [649.6465 - 9867.1617] ppm. Properties and qualities of honey are affected by seasonal factors and various floral sources. The samples were in positive correlation between flavanoid content, phenolic content and their respective anti-oxidant potency.