Exploring the Potency of Medicinal Plants in Central Nepal's Highlands: A Comprehensive Analysis of Antioxidant, Antibacterial Properties, and Toxicity


  • Tara Shrestha Orcid
  • Suman Prakash Pradhan Orcid
  • Prayon Joshi Orcid
  • Sunil Bhandari Orcid
  • Janardan Lamichhane


The current research study aimed to assess the antibacterial, antioxidant, and toxicity effectiveness of eight locally accessible medicinal plants found in the Kavre District of Nepal: Schima wallichii, Woodfordia fruticosa, Cuscuta reflexa, Bombax ceiba, Drymaria diandra, Psidium guajava, Myrica esculenta, and Urtica dioica. Plant extracts were prepared in absolute methanol. The qualitative phytochemical analysis of basic classes of secondary plant metabolites; saponin, sterol, , tannin, quinone, alkaloids, terpenoids, reducing sugar, protein, cardiac glycoside and carbohydrate was carried out. Further, antimicrobial activities, free radical scavenging potential, and toxicity bioassays of the crude extracts were performed. The basic secondary metabolites were detected in all plant extracts. Among the studied plants, W. fructicosa, S. wallichi, M. esculenta, and P. guajava showed noteworthy antimicrobial activities against inspected pathogens. A significant 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity was found in P. guajava, M. esculenta, B. ceiba, W. fructicosa, and U. dioca. Likewise, the highest toxicity potential was observed in C. reflexa followed by U. dioca, B. ceiba, and S. wallichi against Artemia salina. These signifies the potential of plant extracts in herbal medicine. Further work on screening of other biochemical properties will enhance the potential of these plant extracts in modern phytotherapy.